Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player.

Get Adobe Flash player

KINETIC CONTROL: Estabilidade Dinâmica e Equilíbrio Muscular

Autor: Pablo B. Marinho, FT

Criado há mais de 10 anos pelo fisioterapeuta e pesquisador australiano Mark Comerford (pioneiro no conceito de estabilização músculo-esquelética) e pela fisioterapeuta inglesa Sarah Mottram, o Conceito evoluiu muito ao longo dos anos e hoje a estabilização é o tema dos principais congressos mundiais em reabilitação músculo-esquelética.

Pesquisas recentes demonstram a existência de alteração no padrão de movimento em indivíduos que apresentam dor. Os estudos mostram que esses indivíduos adotam padrões de movimento que deveriam estar sendo usados apenas em tarefas que exigem força (com carga) para realizar tarefas funcionais (“sem peso”) como caminhar, ou levar a mão à cabeça.

Mark Comerford sugeriu uma nova classificação muscular, vendo que as classificações anteriores eram muito incompletas. Ele dividiu os grupos musculares em estabilizadores e mobilizadores, sendo que os estabilizadores apresentam duas subdivisões: estabilizadores locais e globais.

Os estabilizadores locais são músculos pequenos e profundos incapazes de realizar movimento, portanto, sua função principal é o controle da translação (deslizamentos) das articulações através de contrações isométricas. Os estabilizadores globais são um pouco mais superficiais e têm como função principal a realização de movimentos funcionais e o controle excêntrico dos movimentos. Já os mobilizadores são representados pelos grandes grupos musculares que se apresentam superficialmente aos demais. Têm a função de gerar, através de contrações concêntricas, velocidade e força. Possuem função estabilizadora, apenas, quando há carga excessiva.

O Kinetic Control é um sistema de avaliação e tratamento que prioriza a estabilidade dinâmica e o equilíbrio muscular. Na avaliação, as informações colhidas são clinicamente interpretadas e a partir daí é realizada a análise do movimento funcional, verificando disfunções, para serem desenvolvidos planos de tratamento objetivando a restauração da estabilidade funcional, do alinhamento articular e do equilíbrio muscular. O tratamento é realizado de forma individual e específica a cada problema de cada indivíduo. O Conceito trabalha com quatro princípios, na restauração da estabilidade funcional:
- Controle da Direção;
- Controle da Translação;
- Controle da Amplitude de Movimento;
- Controle da Extensibilidade.

Controle da Direção
Este princípio está muito relacionado com a consciência corporal, ou seja, é a capacidade do indivíduo em dissociar o movimento entre os segmentos corporais. O indivíduo deverá realizar o movimento em um segmento enquanto mantêm o adjacente em posição neutra. Exemplo: realizar uma flexão de coxa sem deixar a coluna lombar flexionar junto.

Controle da Translação Será trabalhada nesse princípio, a capacidade do indivíduo em controlar a translação (deslizamento) articular através de uma boa contração sustentada, em baixa carga (“sem peso”), dos estabilizadores locais. Músculos profundos que apresentam sua função inibida quando há um quadro de dor.

Controle da Amplitude do Movimento Trabalharemos o controle do movimento que está gerando os sintomas (dor, formigamentos, queimação...), através da ativação dos estabilizadores globais, que devem ser capazes de contrair, realizando seu encurtamento máximo, manter a posição e realizar o controle excêntrico no retorno à posição inicial.

Controle da Extensibilidade Neste princípio, o indivíduo deve ser capaz de atingir, passivamente, a amplitude completa das articulações. Deve-se garantir que os mobilizadores ou o tecido conectivo não estão gerando encurtamentos ou limitações de movimento, o que pode gerar uma falsa impressão de mau funcionamento dos estabilizadores globais.

O Kinetic Control nos permite achar segmentos corporais que estejam fracos e/ou instáveis, que, na verdade, são futuros candidatos a lesões. Avaliando-se os princípios, acima citados, temos condições de chegar a este diagnóstico precoce, mesmo não havendo dor local. Segmentos instáveis podem provocar dor e promovem o desgaste excessivo e precoce das articulações, cartilagens e discos vertebrais, além de lesões de ligamentos e tendões. Na maioria das vezes o quadro de dor melhora em alguns dias ou semanas, mas estudos mostram que a disfunção se mantém presente, provocando a reincidência (retorno) insistente dos sintomas.

Um diagnóstico funcional bem feito e uma abordagem fisioterapêutica específica e individual são imprescindíveis para se obter sucesso num processo de reabilitação. A maioria das dores músculo-esqueléticas ocorre durante a realização de um ou mais movimentos, portanto, a reabilitação deve seguir o mesmo princípio para que sejam evitadas as reincidências.

Sistema de Controle do Movimento Funcional para Excelência Clínica

Diagnóstico, Classificação e Treinamento do Controle Motor na Disfunção de Movimento

Pesquisas recentes mostram claramente que pessoas com dor, apresentam padrões de movimento alterados, e assim, adotam padrões que, normalmente, deveriam estar sendo usadas em tarefas de alta carga, para realizar movimentos funcionais. O Kinetic Control pode ajudar o terapeuta a compreender os mecanismos, identificar e tratar esses padrões alterados de movimento.

Nossos cursos buscam desenvolver o seu conhecimento na avaliação, diagnóstico, classificação e abordagem das disfunções de movimento. Nosso processo oferece ao terapeuta ferramentas para:

- Identificar a real prioridade clínica;
- Avaliar, diagnosticar e classificar o movimento em relação à dor e a disfunção de uma perspectiva biomecânica e motora;
- Ter disponível em mãos uma grande quantidade de estratégias e abordagens para um bom treinamento motor, garantindo qualidade no movimento funcional e diminuição efetiva das reincidivas;
- Use um raciocínio clínico sustentado como prioridade na tomada de decisão durante a prática clínica habitual;
- Use habilidades refinadas de observação e palpação, e aprenda a usar a unidade pressórica como biofeedback do recrutamento e controle muscular.
- Use técnicas de taping para dar suporte ao movimento instável ou facilitar o aprendizado motor.
- Desenvolver uma análise sustentada que será essencial no diagnóstico de:

1. Disfunção
- localização e direção do movimento instável
- translação descontrolada
- restrições miofasciais e articulares
- respostas espásticas

2. Diagnóstico de dor em tecidos sensíveis

3. Diagnóstico dos mecanismos de dor
- sensibilização mecânica inflamatória
- sensibilização neurogênica do SNC
- respostas de comportamento
- Use uma ferramenta de análise clínica para identificar deficiências e reavaliar melhoras no controle motor;
- Re-integre exercícios não-funcionais em movimentos funcionais;
Nesso processo inclui:
- Diagnóstico, classificação e treinamento do controle motor nas disfunções de movimento na coluna lombar, articulação sacroilíaca, quadril, coluna cervical e cintura escapular.
- Uma revisão da biomecânica do movimento funcional normal.
- Uma revisão biomecânica da disfunção que produz patologia e estresse nos tecidos.
- Relacionar os testes funcionais aos sintomas.
- Um raciocínio clínico baseado para identificar prioridades na reabilitação, quando iniciar o treinamento e como ser bem específico e eficiente na prescrição dos exercícios.
- Uma visão de como escolher a velocidade e o modo de progredir, e como dizer que o objetivo de controle independente foi atingido.
- Controle direcional para um diagnóstico evidenciado.
- Desenvolvimento dos princípios de reabilitação e aplicação das estratégias de treinamento dos sistemas musculares local e global:
- Controle da direção
- Controle da translação
- Controle do desequilíbrio – controle global através da amplitude e extensibilidade do sistema global
- Como utilizar os recentes achados científicos na prática clínica.
- Entender sobre limiar de recrutamento – aplicar os princípios da neurofisiologia no planejamento do treinamento motor nas disfunções de movimento.
- Uma revisão da função muscular evidenciada nos últimos estudos, e considerações a respeito da função muscular nos grupos monoarticulares e poli-articulares.
- O Kinetic Control tem promovido cursos de estabilização pelo mundo todo há mais de uma década e 2007 será o terceiro ano em que o curso estará sendo ministrado no Brasil. Os cursos oferecidos pelo Kinetic Control são reconhecidos internacionalmente e essa é a primeira vez em que estarão sendo ministrados em português pela Instrutora Credenciada Elisângela Bof. Não perca a oportunidade de participar da terceira turma do Brasil.

Conceito Kinetic Control - Referencias Bibliográficas
Curso Lombar

Basmajian J, DeLuca C 1985 Muscles Alive. Williams & Wilkins.

Bergmark A 1989 Stability of the lumbar spine. A study in mechanical engineering. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 230(60):20-24

Bogduk N 1997 Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum. 3rd edition. Churchill Livingstone.

Boyling J, Palastanga N (Eds.) 1994 Grieve’s Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column 2nd edition. Churchill Livingstone.

Buller AJ, Eccles JC, Eccles RM 1960 Interactions between motorneurones and muscles in respect of the characteristic speeds of their responses. J Physiology 150:417-439

Butler D 1993 Mobilisation of the Nervous System. Churchill Livingstone.

Cholewicki J & McGill S 1996 Mechanical stability in the vivo lumbar spine: implications for injury and chronic low back pain. Clinical Biomechanics 11(1):1-15

Comerford M 1997 Dynamic Stabilisation - evidence of muscle dysfunction. British Institute of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Society of Orthopaedic Medicine Conference. London.

Comerford M 1996 Dynamic Stability and Muscle Balance of the Lumbar Spine and Trunk. Course notes. Copyright Kinetic Control.

Crosbie J, McConnell J (Eds.) 1993 Key Issues in Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy. Butterworth Heineman.

Cyriax J, Cyriax P 1996 Cyriax’s Illustrated Manual of orthopaedic Medicine. 2nd edition. Butterworth Heinemann.

Davies P 1990 Right in the Middle. Springer-Verlag.

Dvorak J, Dvorak V 1990 Manual Medicine: Diagnostics. 2nd revised edition. Thieme.

Eccles JC, Eccles RM & Lundberg A 1957 The convergence of monosynaptic excitatory afferents onto many different species of alpha motorneurons. J Physiology (London) 137:22-50

Elvey RL 1998 The Physical Evaluation and Treatment of Neural Tissue. Course notes. Southampton University

Elvey RL 1995 Peripheral neuropathic disorders and neuromusculoskeletal pain. In Shacklock M (ed.) 1995 Moving in on Pain. Butterworth Heinemann.

Gifford L 1998 Pain, the tissue and the nervous system: a conceptual model. Physiotherapy 84(1):27-33

Goff B 1972 The application of recent advances in neurophysiology to Miss R Rood's concept of neuromuscular facilitation. Physiotherapy 58:2 409-415

Goldspink G, Williams PE 1992 Muscle fibre and connective tissue changes associated with use and disuse. In: Ada L & Canning C (Eds.) Key Issues in Neurological Physiotherapy. Butterworth Heinemann.

Greenman P 1996 Principles of Manual Medicine. 2nd edition. Williams & Wilkins.

Grieve G (Ed.) 1986 Modern Manual Therapy of the Vertebral Column. Churchill Livingstone.

Grimby L, Hannerz J 1976 Disturbances in voluntary recruitment order of low and high frequency motor units on blockades of proprioceptive afferent activity. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 96:207-216

Hall T, Hepburn M, Elvey R 1993 The effect of lumbosacral posture on a modification of the straight leg raise test. Physiotherapy 79(8):566-570

Hamilton C, Richardson C 1995 Towards the development of a clinical test of local muscle dysfunction in the lumbar spine. In proceedings of the 9th Biennial Conference of the Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia. Gold Coast.

Hamilton C, Richardson C 1998 Active control of the neutral lumbopelvic posture; a comparison between back pain and non back pain subjects. Proceedings: Third Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain. Vienna, Austria

Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA 1996 Multifidus muscle recovery is not automatic after resolution of acute, first-episode low back pain. Spine 21(23):2763-2769

Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA 1994 Multifidus inhibition in acute low back pain: recovery is not spontaneous. In Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Conference of the Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia. Gold Coast.

Hides JA, Stokes MJ, Saide M, Jull GA, Cooper DH 1994 Evidence of lumbar multifidus wasting ipsilateral to symptoms in patients with acute/subacute low back pain. Spine 19(2):165-177

Hides J 1998 The lumbar multifidus muscle: evidence of a link to low back pain. Proceedings: Third Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain. Vienna, Austria

Hodges PW, Richardson CA 1996 Inefficient muscular stabilisation of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain: a motor control evaluation of transversus abdominis. Spine 21(22):2640-2650

Hodges P 1998 Transversus abdominis: the forgotten muscle: Its function and its dysfunction in the presence of low back pain. Proceedings: Third Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain. Vienna, Austria

Hoffer J, Andreassen S 1981 Regulation of soleus muscle stiffness in premamillary cats. J Neurophysiology 45:267-285

Hunter G 1998 Specific soft tissue mobilisation in the management of soft tissue dysfunction. Manual Therapy 3(1):2-11

Hurley MV 1997 The effects of damage on muscle function, proprioception and rehabilitation. Manual Therapy 2(1):11-17

Hurley MV, Newham DJ 1993 The influence of arthrogenous muscle inhibition on quadriceps rehabilitation of patients with early unilateral osteoarthritic knees. British Journal of Rheumatology 32:127-131

Juhan D 1987 Job’s Body: A Handbook for Bodywork. Station Hill.

Janda V 1985 Pain in the locomotor system - A broad approach. In Glasgow et al. (eds.) Aspects of Manipulative Therapy. Churchill Livingstone:148-151

Johansson H, Sjolander P, Sojka P 1991 A sensory role for the cruciate ligaments. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 268(7):161-178

Johansson H, Sjolander P, Sojka P 1991 Receptors in the knee joint ligaments and their role in the biomechanics of the joint. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. 18(5):341-368

Johnson MI 1997 The physiology of the sensory dimensions of clinical pain. Physiotherapy 83(10):526-536

Jull G, Richardson C, Comerford M 1991 Strategies for the initial activation of dynamic lumbar stabilisation. In proceedings of Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia 7th Biennial Conference. New South Wales :65-67

Jull G, Richardson C, Toppenberg R, Comerford M, Bui B 1993 Towards a measurement of active muscle control for lumbar stabilisation. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 39(3):187-193

Jull G 1997 Management of cervical headache. Manual Therapy. 2(4):182-190

Jull G, Scott Q, Richardson C, Henry S, Hides J, , Hodges P1998 New concepts for the control of pain in the lumbopelvic region. Proceedings: Third Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain. Vienna, Austria

Kahle W, Leonhardt H, Platzer W 1984 Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy Vol. 1 Locomotor System (Platzer). 3rd revised edition. Thieme.

Kapandji I A 1982 The Physiology of the Joints. 5th edition. Vol. 1: The upper limb, Vol. 2: The lower limb, Vol. 3: The trunk and vertebral column. Churchill Livingstone

Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG 1993 Muscles Testing and Function. 3rd edition. Williams & Wilkins. USA.

Klein-Vogelbach S 1991 Therapeutic Exercises in Functional Kinetics. Springer-Verlag.

Klein-Vogelbach S 19901 Functional Kinetics. Springer-Verlag.

Lee DG 1996 Rotational instability of the mid- thoracic spine: assessment and management. Manual Therapy 1(5):234-241

Lee DG 1989 The Pelvic Girdle. Churchill Livingstone.

Lieber R 1992 Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function: Implications for Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine. Williams & Wilkins.

Maitland GD 1986 Vertebral manipulation. 5th edition. Butterworth Heinemann.

Mennell J 1992 The Musculoskeletal System: Differential Diagnosis from Symptoms and Physical Signs. Aspen Publication.

Mottram S L 1997 Dynamic stability of the scapula. . Manual Therapy 2(3):123-131

Mottram S L, Comerford M 1998 Stability dysfunction and low back pain. Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine 20:2 13 - 18

Mulvein K 1995 Kinematic analysis of lumbar flexion and lumbar lateral shift. In proceedings of the 9th Biennial Conference of the Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia. Gold Coast.

Nachemson A 1985 Lumbar spine instability: a critical update and symposium summary. Spine 10:290-291

Olson T 1996 A.D.A.M. Student Atlas of Anatomy. Williams and Wilkins.

O’Sullivan PB, Twomey L, Allison G 1997 Evaluation of specific stabilising exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiological diagnosis of spondylosis or spondylolisthesis. Spine 22(24):2959-2967

O’Sullivan PB, Twomey L, Allison G 1997 Dysfunction of the neuro-muscular system in the presence of low back pain - implications for physical therapy. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy 5(1):20-26

O’Sullivan PB, Twomey L, Allison G, Sinclair J, Miller K, Knox J 1997 Altered patterns of abdominal muscle activation in patients with chronic low back pain. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 43(2):91-98

O’Sullivan P, Twomey L, Allison G 1995 Evaluation of specific stabilising exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiological diagnosis of spondylosis or spondylolisthesis. In Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Conference of the Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia. Gold Coast :113-114

Panjabi M 1992 The stabilising system of the spine. Part 1. Function, dysfunction, adaptation, and enhancement. Journal of Spinal Disorders 5(4):383-389

Panjabi M 1992 The stabilising system of the spine. Part 11. Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. Journal of Spinal Disorders 5(4):390-397

Richardson CA, Sims K 1991 An inner range holding contraction. An objective measure of stabilising function of an antigravity muscle. In proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. London :829

Richardson C, Jull G, Toppenberg R, Comerford M 1992 Techniques for active lumbar stabilisation for spinal protection: a pilot study. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 38(2):105-112

Richardson CA, Jull GA 1995 Muscle control - pain control. What exercises would you prescribe? Manual Therapy 1:1-9

Richardson C, Jull G, Hides J, Hodges P 1998 Therapeutic Exercise for Spinal Stabilisation: Scientific basis and practical techniques. Churchill Livingstone London

Richardson C, Hides J, Jull G, Hodges P, Scott Q, Roll S 1998 Non-invasive assessments of deep muscle dysfunction associated with low back pain. Proceedings: Third Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain. Vienna, Austria

Robertson S 1999 Neuroanatomical review of visceral pain. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 7(3):131-140

Rothstein J, Roy S, Wolf S 1991 The Rehabilitation Specialist’s Handbook. F.A. Davis.

Rothwell J 1994 Control of Human Voluntary Movement. 2nd edition. Chapman & Hall.

Sahrmann SA 1993 Movement as a cause of musculoskeletal pain. In proceedings of the 8th Biennial Conference of the Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia. Perth.

Sahrmann SA 1992 Diagnosis and treatment of muscle imbalance associated with regional pain syndromes (Course notes). School of Medicine, Washington University, St.Louis.

Sahrmann SA 1987 Muscle imbalances in the orthopaedic and neurologic patient. In proceedings of the 10th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Sydney :836-841

Sahrmann S, Caldwell C, Fleming D, Hall C, McDonnell M, Woolsey N 1998 Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes. Seminar. London.

Schaible H, Grubb BD 1993 Afferent and spinal mechanisms of joint pain. Pain 55:5-54

Shacklock M (ed.) 1995 Moving in on Pain. Butterworth Heinemann.

Shakespeare DT, Stokes M, Sherman KP, Young A 1985 Reflex inhibition of the quadriceps after meniscectomy: lack of association with pain. Clinical Physiology 5:137-144

Shambes G, Waterland J 1973 Control of motor units in skill and postural muscles in normal man. American Journal of Physical Medicine 52(3):114-123

Siddall P, Cousins M 1997 Spine update: spinal pain mechanisms. Spine 22(1):98-104

Stokes M, Cooper R 1993 Physiological factors influencing performance of skeletal muscle. In Crosbie J, McConnell J (Eds.) Key Issues in Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy. Butterworth Heineman :16-47

Stokes MJ, Cooper RG, Morris G, Jayson MIV 1992 Selective changes in multifidus dimensions in patients with chronic low back pain. European Spine Journal 1:38-42

Stokes M, Young A 1984 The contribution of reflex inhibition to arthrogenous muscle wasting. Clinical Science 67:7-14

Stokes M, Young A 1984 Investigations of quadriceps inhibition: Implications for Clinical Practice. Physiotherapy 70(11):425-428

Travell J, Simons D 1992 Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual. Vol. 1: The Upper Extremities, Vol. 2: The Lower Extremities. Williams and Wilkins.

Twomey LT, Taylor JR (Eds.) Physical therapy of the Low Back. 2nd edition. Churchill Livingstone.

Vander AJ, Sherman JH, Luciano DS 1994 Human Physiology. 2nd edition. McGraw Hill.

Van Wingerden BAM 1995 Connective Tissue in Rehabilitation. Scipro Verlag.

Vleeming A, Mooney V, Dorman T, Snijders C, Stoeckart R (Eds.) 1997 Movement, stability and low back pain. The essential role of the pelvis. 1st edition. Churchill Livingstone.

Vrbova G, Gordon T, Jones R 1995 Nerve – Muscle Interaction. 2nd edition. Chapman & Hall.

Wall D, Melzack R (eds.) 1995 Textbook of Pain. 3rd edition. Churchill Livingstone.

White A, Panjabi M 1990 Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine. 2nd edition. Lippincott.

Williams P, Goldspink G 1978 Changes in sarcomere length and physiological properties in immobilised muscle. J of Anatomy 127:459-468

Woo S, Buckwater J (eds.) 1988 Injury and Repair of Musculoskeletal Soft Tissues. American Academy or Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Woolf CJ 1987 Physiological, inflammatory and neurological pain. Advances & Technical Standards in Neurosurgery 15:39-62

Yokochi C, Rohen J, Weinreb E 1994 Photographic Anatomy of the Human Body. 3rd revised edition. Igaku-Shoin.

Conceito Kinetic Control - Referencias Bibliográficas Curso Cervical

Amevo B, Aprill C, Bogduk N 1992 Abnormal instantaneous axes of rotation in patients with neck pain. Spine 54(2): 213-217

Aprill C, Dwyer A, Bogduk N 1990 Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain patterns II: a clinical evaluation. Spine 15(6): 458-461

Aspinall W 1990 Clinical testing for the craniovertebral hypermobility syndrome. Physical Therapy 12(2): 47-54

Balster S M, Jull G A 1977 Upper trapezius muscle activity during the brachial plexus tension test in asymptomatic subjects. Manual Therapy 2(3): 144-149

Barker S, Kesson M, Ashmore J, Turner G, Conway J, Stevens D 2000 Guidance for pre-manipulative testing of the cervical spine. Manual Therapy 5(1): 37-40

Beeton K, Jull G A 1994 The effectiveness of manipulative physiotherapy in the management of cervicogenic headache: A single case study. Physiotherapy 80(7): 417-423

Beeton K 1995 Instability in the upper cervical region. Clinical presentation; radiological and clinical testing. Manipulative Physiotherapy 27(1): 19-32

Behrsin J F, Maguire K 1986 Levator scapulae action during shoulder movement: a possible mechanism for shoulder pain of cervical origin. Australian J Physiotherapy 32(2): 101-106

Bogduk N 1991 Contemporary biomechanics of the cervical spine. MPAA Conference proceedings (7th) 1- 9 Australia

Bogduk N 1994 Biomechanics of the cervical spine. In: Grant R (eds) Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine 2nd Churchill Livingstone, 2 p27-64

Bogduk N 1994 Innervations and pain patterns of the cervical spine. In: Grant R(eds)Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine Churchill Livingstone, 4 p65-87

Bogduk N 1997 Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum,3rd. Churchill Livingstone

Bogduk N, Lord SM 1998 Cervical spine disorders. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 10: 110-115

Bontoux D 1999 Dysphagia, headache and dizziness as symptoms of cervical spine disorders. Revue du Rhumatisme English edition 65: 346-351

Byng J 1997 Overuse syndromes of the upper limb and the upper limb tension test: a comparison between patients, asymptomatic keyboard workers and asymptomatic non-keyboard workers. Manual Therapy 2(3): 157-164

Cholewicki J, Panjabi M M, Nibu K, Babat L B, Grauer JN, Dvorak J 1998 Head kinematics during in vitro whiplash simulation. Accident Analysis and Prevention 30: 469-479

Christensen H W, Nilsson N 1999 The ability to reproduce the neutral zero position of the head. J Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 22(1): 26-28

Conley M S, Meyer R A, Bloomberg J J, Feedback D L, Dudley G A 1995 Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function. Spine 20(23): 2505-2515

Crawford N R, Peles J D, Dickman C A 1998 The spinal lax zone and neutral zone: measurement techniques and parameter comparisons. J of Spinal Disorders 11(5): 416-429

Cresswell A G, Grundstrom A, and Thorstensson A. Observations on intra-abdominal pressure and patterns of abdominal intra-muscular activity in man. Acta Orthop Scan 144, 409-418. 1992.

Dai L 1998 Disc degeneration and cervical instability. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with radiography. Spine 23:1734-1738

Dvorak J, Panjabi M M, Gerber M, Wichmann W 1987 Functional diagnostics of the rotatory instability of the upper cervical spine 1. An experimental study on cadavers. Spine 12(3): 197-205

Dvorak J and Dvorak V 2000 Manual Medicine Diagnostics,2nd.Ed Thieme, Dwyer A, Aprill C, Bogduk N 1990 Cervical zygapophyseal joint pain patterns I: a study of normal volunteers. Spine 15(6): 453-457

Edgar D, Jull G, Sutton S 1994 The relationship between upper trapezius muscle length and upper quadrant neural tissue extensibility. Australian J Physiotherapy 40:99-103

Goldspink G, Williams P 1992 Muscle fibre and connective tissue changes associated with use and disuse. In:Ada L,Canning C(eds)Physiotherapy: Foundations for Practice. Key issues in Neurological Physiotherapy 1st 8 p197-217

Grant R, Forrester C, Hides J 1995 Screen based keyboard operation: the adverse effects on the neural system. Australian J Physiotherapy 41(2): 99-107

Grant R, Jull G, Spencer T 1997 Active stabilisation training for screen based keyboard operators - a single case study. Australian J Physiotherapy 43(4): 235-242

Greening J, Lynn B 1998 Minor peripheral nerve injury: an underestimated source of pain? Manual Therapy 3(4): 187-194

Greening J, Lynn B 1998 Vibration sense in the upper limb patients with repetitive strain injury and a group of at risk office workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 71(1): 29-34

Greening J, Smart S, Leary R, Halls-Cragg M, O'Higgins P, Lynn B 1999 Reduced movement of median nerve in carpal tunnel during wrist flexion in patients with non-specific arm pain. Lancet 354(9174): 217-218

Griegal-Morris P, Larson K, Muellae-Klaus K, Oatis C A 1992 Incidence of common postural abnormalities in the cervical, shoulder and thoracic regions and their association with pain in two groups of healthy subjects. Physical Therapy 72(6): 425-431

Gunn C C 1996 The Gunn Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Pain: Intramuscular stimulation for myofascial pain of radiculopathic origin,2nd.Ed Churchill Livingstone,

Hack G D, Koritzer R T, Robinson W L, Hallegren R C, Greenman P E 1995

Anatomic relation between the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and the dura mater. Spine 20(23): 2484-2486

Hallegren R C, Greenman P, Rechtein J 1994 Atrophy of suboccipital muscles in patients with chronic pain: a pilot study. J Am Osteopathic Association 94:1032-1038

Hamilton C and Richardson C 1998 Active control of the neutral lumbopelvic posture; a comparison between back pain and non back pain subjects Vleeming A, Mooney V, Tilsher H, Dorman T, and Snijders C 3rd Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back Pain and Pelvic Pain Vienna Austria

Heikkila H, Per-Gunnar A 1996 Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in patients with whiplash injury. Scand J Rehab Med 28(133-138)

Heikkila HV, Wenngren BI 1998 Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, active range of movement of cervical motion, and oculomotor function in patients with whiplash injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79:1089-1098

Hides J A, Richardson C A, Jull G A 1996 Multifidus recovery is not automatic after resolution of acute, first-episode low back pain. Spine 21(23): 2763-2769

Hodges P W 1999 Is there a role for transversus abdominis in lumbo-pelvic stability? Manual Therapy 4(2): 74-86

Hurley M V 1996 The effects of joint damage on muscle function, proprioception and rehabilitation. Manual Therapy 1(5): 11-17

Jarvis G 1995 A study of the relationship between upper limb disorders and lower limb neurodynamics. British J Therapy & Rehabilitation 2(12): 668-674

Johansson H, Sjolander P, Sojka P 1991 Receptors in the knee joint ligaments and their role in biomechnais of the joint. Critical Reviews Biomedical Engineering 18(5): 341-368

Johnson G, Bogduk N, Nowitzke A, House D 1994 Anatomy and actions of the trapezius muscle. Clinical Biomechanics 9(44-50)

Jonsson H, Bring G, Raushning W, Sahlstedt B 1991 Hidden cervical spine injuries in traffic accident victims with skull fractures. J Spinal Disorders 4(3251): 163

Jull G 1997 Management of cervical headache. Manual Therapy 2(4): 182-190

Jull G, Zito G, Trott P, Potter H, Shirley D, Richardson C 1997 Inter-examiner reliability to detect painful upper cervical joint dysfunction. Australian J Physiotherapy 43(2): 125-129

Jull G 1997 Establishment of a randomised clinical trial to test the efficacy of manipulative physiotherapy treatment for cervicogenic headache. MPPA proceedings 1997 84-89

Jull G 1998 Characterization of cervicogenic headache. Physical Therapy Reviews 3:95-105

Jull G 1998 Physiotherapy management of neck pain of mechanical origin. In:Giles L G F,Singer K P(eds)Clinical Anatomy and Management of Cervical Spine Pain Ist Ed Butterwoth-Heinemann, Oxford ch11 p168-191

Jull G, Barrett C, Magee R, Ho P 1999 Further clinical clarification of the muscle dysfunction in cervical headache. Cephalalgia 19(3): 179-185

Jull G A 1988 The accuracy of manual diagnosis for cervical zygoapophysial joint pain syndrome. Australian Medical Journal 148:--233-236

Jull G A 2000 Deep cervical flexor muscle dysfunction in whiplash. J Musculoskeletal Pain 8(1/2): 143-154

Kahle W, Leonhardt H, and Platzer W 1992 Color Atlas/Text of Human Anatomy Vol 1 Locomotor System, 4th.Thieme,

Kahle W, Leonhardt H, and Platzer W 1993 Color Atlas/Text of Human Anatomy Vol 3 Nervous System and Sensory Organs,4th.Thieme,

Kamibayashi L, Richmond F J R 1998 Morphometry of human neck muscles. Spine 23(12): 1314-1323

Kapandji I A 1974 The Physiology of Joints vol 3, The Trunk and Vertebral Column, Churchill Livingstone,

Kapandji I A 1982 The Physiology of Joints vol I, Upper Limb Churchill Livingstone,

Kendall F P, McCreary E K, and Provance P G 1993 Muscle Testing & Function,4th Edition. Williams & Wilkins

Kennedy C 1998 Exercize interventions for the cervical spine. Orthopaedic Division Review Nov / Dec: 13-29

Kuhn J E, Plancher K D, Hawkins R J 1998 Symptomatic scapulothoracic crepitus and bursitis. J Am Acad Ortho Sug 6(5): 267-273

Lee D G 1996 Rotational instability of the mid-thoracic spine: assessment and treatment. Manual Therapy 1(5): 234-241

Lieber R 1992 Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function: Implications for Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Williams & Wilkins

Mayoux-Benhamou M A, Revel M Vallee C, Roudier J P, Bargy F 1994 Longus Colli has a postural function of cervical curvature. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 16:367-371

Mayoux-Benhamou M A, Revel M, Vallee C 1997 Selective electromyography of dorsal neck muscles in humans. Experimental Brain Research 113:353-360

McPartland J M, Brodeur R R, Hallegren R C 1997 Chronic neck pain, standing balance, and suboccipital muscle atrophy - a pilot study. J Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 20(1): 24-29

McPartland J M, Brodeur R R 1999 Rectus capitus posterior minor: a small but important suboccipital muscle. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 3(1): 30-35

Netter F H 1998 Atlas of Human Anatomy,2nd.Ed Novartis,

Norkin C C and Levangie P K 1992 Joint Structure and Function: a comprehensive analysis,2nd.Ed F A Davies,

O'Sullivan P B, Twomey L, Allison G 1997 Evaluation of specific stabilising exercises in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiological diagnosis of spondylosis or spondylolisthesis. Spine 22(24): 2959-2967

Olsom T R 1996 A.D.A.M. Student Atlas of Anatomy,1st.Ed Williams & Wilkins,

Palastanga N, Field D, and Soames R 1994 Anatomy and Human Movement,2nd.Ed Butterworth Heinemann,

Panjabi M M 1992 The stabilising system of the spine. Part 1. Function, dysfunction, adaptation, and enhancement. J of Spinal Disorders 5(4): 383-389

Panjabi M M 1992 The stabilising system of the spine. Part II Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. J of Spinal Disorders 5(4): 390-397

Panjabi M M, Cholewicki J, Nibu K, Grauer JN, Dvorak J 1998 Mechanism of whiplash injury. Clinical Biomechanics 13:239-249

Panjabi M M, Crisco J J, Lydon C, Dvorak J 1998 The mechanical properties of human alar and transverse ligaments at slow and fast extension rates. Clinical Biomechanics 13(2): 112-120

Panjabi M M 2000 Cervical spine models for biomechanical research. Spine 23(24): 2684-2700

Pettman E 1994 Stress tests of the craniovertebral joints. In:Boyling J D,Palastanga N(eds)Grieve's Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh ch38 p529-537

Price C I, Franklin P, Rodgers H, Curless R H, and Johnson G R. 2000 Active and passive scapulohumeral movement in healthy persons: a comparison. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 81:1 28-31

Raine S, Twomey L T 1997 Head and shoulder posture variations in 160 asymptomatic women and men. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 78:1215-1223

Raushning W 1992 Pathoanatomical and clinical findings in spinal injuries. Manipulative Physiotherapy 26(1): 23

Richardson C, Jull G, Hodges P, and Hides J 1999 Therapeutic Exercise for Spinal Segmental Stabilization in Low Back Pain: Scientific Basis and Clinical Approach,1st. Ed Churchill Livingstone

Richardson C A and Sims K 1991 An inner range holding contraction. An objective measure of stabilising function of an antigravity muscle. 11th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy London - 831

Rothwell J 1994 Control of Human Voluntary Movement,2nd. Ed Chapman & Hall

Sahrmann S A 2000 Diagnosis & treatment of movement impairment syndromes. Course publication London.

Sahrmann S A 2000 Diagnosis & Treatment of Management Impairment Syndromes,Ist.Mosby, USA (in Press)

Silverman J L, Rodriquez A A, Agre J C 1992 Quantitative cervical flexor strength in healthy subjects and in subjects with mechanical neck pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 72(9): 679-681

Simons D G and Travell J G 1999 Myofascial Pain & Dysfunction. The Trigger Point Manual - Volume 1 Upper Half of Body,2nd.Ed Williams & Wilkins,

Singer KP, Fitzgerald D, and Milne N 1993 Neck retraction exercises and cervical disk disease MPAA Conference proceedings, Australia

Stokes M, Young A 1984 The contribution of reflex inhibition to arthrogenous muscle weakness. Clinical Science 67:7-14

Swinkels R, Beeton K, Alltree J 1996 Pathogenesis of upper cervical instability. Manual Therapy 1:127-132

Treleaven J, Jull G, Atkinson L 1994 Cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction in post-concussional headache. Cephalagia 14(4): 273-279

Uhlig Y, Weber B R, Grob D, Muntener M 1995 Fibre composition and fibre transformation in neck muscles of patients with dysfunction of the cervical spine. J Orthopaedic Research 13: 240-249

Watson D, Trott P 1994 Cervical headache: an investigation of natural posture and upper cervical flexor muscle performance. Cephalagia 12:272-284

White S G, Sahrmann S A 1994 A movement system balance approach to management of musculoskeletal pain. In:Grant R(eds)Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spines 2nd 16 p339-357

Williams JM, Jull GA & Ng J. 1996 An invivo study of the primary and coupled rotations of the thoracic spine. Clinical Biomechanics 11 (6) 311 – 316

Worth DR & Selvik G. 1986 Movements of the craniovertebral joints. Modern Manual Therapy (ed) Grieve. Churchill Livingstone.

Worth D R 1994 Movements of the Head and Neck. In:Boyling J D,Palastanga N(eds)Grieve's Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column 2nd Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh ch4 p53-68

Conceito Kinetic Control - Referencias Bibliográficas Curso Ombro

Allegrucci M, Whitney S L, Irrgang J J 1994 Clinical implications of secondary impingement of the shoulder in freestyle swimmers. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy 20 307-318

Alvemalm A, Furness A & Wellington L 1996 Measurement of shoulder joint kinaesthesia. Manual Therapy 1: 140 – 145

Bagg S D, Forrest W J 1986 Electromyographic study of scapular rotators during arm abduction in the scapular plane. Am J Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 65:111-124

Bagg SD & Forrest WJ 1986 Electromyographic study of the scapula rotators during arm abduction in the scapula plane. American Journal of Physical Medicine 65(3): 111-124

Baker C L, Liu S H 1993 Neurovascular injuries to the shoulder. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy 18(1): 360-364

Ballantyne B T, O'Hare S J, Paschall J L, Pavia-Smith M M, Pitz A M, Gillon J F, Soderberg G L 1993 Electromyographic activity of selected shoulder muscles in commonly used therapeutic exercises. Physical Therapy 73(10): 668-682

Balster S M, Jull G A 1977 Upper trapezius muscle activity during the brachial plexus tension test in asymptomatic subjects. Manual Therapy 2(3): 144-149

Basmajian JV & Bazant FJ. 1991 Factors preventing downward dislocation of the adducted shoulder. Journal Bone Joint Surgery 41A: 1182-1186

Basmajian JV & De Luca CJ. 1985 Muscles Alive - Their Function Revealed by Electromyography. 5th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Balitmore, USA. ch12 p273 –276

Bassett R W, Browne A O, Morrey B F, An K N 1999 Glenohumeral muscle force and moment mechanics in a position of shoulder instability. J Biomechanics 23:405-415

Babyar SR. 1996 Excessive scapula motion in individuals recovering from painful and stiff shoulders : causes and treatment strategies. Physical Therapy 76:3 226 – 238

Beeton K, Jull G A 1994 The effectiveness of manipulative physiotherapy in the management of cervicogenic headache: A single case study. Physiotherapy 80(7): 417-423

Behrsin J F, Maguire K 1986 Levator scapulae action during shoulder movement: a possible mechanism for shoulder pain of cervical origin. Australian J Physiotherapy 32(2): 101-106

Byng J 1997 Overuse syndromes of the upper limb and the upper limb tension test: a comparison between patients, asymptomatic keyboard workers and asymptomatic non-keyboard workers. Manual Therapy 2(3): 157-164

Cain P R, Mutschler T A, Fu F H, Kwon Lee K 1987 Anterior stability of the glenohumeral joint. Am J Sports Med 15(2): 144-147

Carr A J 1996 Biomechanics of shoulder stability. Current Orthopaedics 10:146-150

Crawford HJ & Jull GA. 1993 The influence of thoracic posture and movement on range of arm elevation. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice 9: 143 – 148

Culham E & Peat M. 1993 Functional anatomy of the shoulder complex. Journal Orthopaedic Sports Physical Therapy 18:1 342-350

Diveta J, Walker M L, Skibinski B 1990 Relationship between performance of selected scapula muscles and scapula abduction in standing subjects. Physical Therapy 70:470-479

Donatelli R A 1987 Physical Therapy of the Shoulder,3rd. Ed Churchill Livingstone,

Doody SG, Freedman L & Waterland JC. 1970 Shoulder movements during abduction in the scapula plane. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 51: 959 – 604

Edgar D, Jull G & Sutton S. 1994 The relationship between upper trapezius muscle length and upper quadrant neural extensibility. Australian Physiotherapy 40 (2) : 99 – 103

Freedman L & Munro RR. 1966 Abduction of the arm in the scapula plane: scapular and glenohumeral movements. Journal Bone Joint Surgery 48A(8): 1503 – 1510

Fu F H, Harner C D, Klein A H 1997 Shoulder impingement syndrome: a critical review. Clin Orthop 269:162-173

Glousman R 1993 Electromyographic analysis and its role in the athletic shoulder. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 288(3): 27-34

Glousman R, Jobe F W, Tibone J, Moynes MS, Perry J 1988 Dynamic EMG analysis of the throwing shoulder with glenohumeral instability. J Bone & Joint Surgery 70A:220-226

Goldspink G, Williams PE. 1992 Muscle fibre and connective tissue changes associated with use and disuse. In: Ada L & Canning C. (eds) Key Issues in Neurological Physiotherapy. Butterworth Heinemann ch8 p197 – 218

Gowan I D, Jobe F W, Tibone J, Perry J, Moynes D R 1987 A comparative electromyographic analysis of the shoulder during pitching. Professional versus amateur pitchers. Am J Sports Med 15 586

Grant R, Forrester C & Hides J. 1995 Screen based keyboard operation : the adverse effects on the neural system. Australian Physiotherapy 41 : 2 99 - 107

Gray’s Anatomy. 1995 38th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

Greening J & Lynne B. 1998 Vibration sense in the upper limb in patients with repetitive strain injury and a group of at risk office workers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1 : 71 29 – 34

Greening J, Lynn B 1998 Minor peripheral nerve injury: an underestimated source of pain? Manual Therapy 3(4): 187-194

Greening J, Smart S, Leary R, Halls-Cragg M, O'Higgins P, Lynn B 1999

Reduced movement of median nerve in carpal tunnel during wrist flexion in patients with non-specific arm pain. Lancet 354(9174): 217-218

Gross M L, Brenner S L, Esformes I, Sonzogni J J 1993 Anterior shoulder instability in weight lifters. Am J Sports Med 21(4): 599-603

Gunn C C 1996 The Gunn Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Pain: Intramuscular stimulation for myofascial pain of radiculopathic origin,2nd.Ed Churchill Livingstone,

Harryman D T, Sidles J A, Clark J M, McQuade K J, Gibb T D, Matsen F A 1990 Translation of the humeral head on the glenoid with passive glenohumeral motion. J Bone & Joint Surgery 72A(9): 1334-1343

Harryman D T, Sidles J A, Harris S L, Matsen F A 1992 Laxity of the normal glenohumeral joint: a quantative in vivo assessment. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1(2): 66-76

Harryman D T, Sidles J A, Harris S L, Matsen F A 1992 The role of the rotator cuff interval capsule in passive motion and stability of the shoulder. J Bone & Joint Surgery 74A(1): 53-66

Hart D L, Carmichael S W 1985 Biomechanics of the shoulder. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy Jan:229-234

Hawkins R J, Hobeika P E 1993 Impingement syndrome in the athletic shoulder. Clinical Sports Medicine 2(2): 391-405

Hawkins R J, Kennedy J C 1980 Impingement syndrome in athletes. Am J Sports Med 8(3): 151-158

Hertel R, Ballmer F T, Lambert S M, Gerber C 1996 Lag signs in the diagnosis of rotator cuff rupture. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 5:307-313

Hess S A 2000 Functional stability of the glenohumeral joint. Manual Therapy 5(2): 63-71

Host H H 1999 Scapula taping in the treatment of anterior shoulder impingement. Physical Therapy 75(9): 803-812

Howell S M, Galinat B J, Renzin A J, Marone P J 1988 Normal & abnormal mechanics of the glenohumeral joint in the horizontal plane. J Bone & Joint Surgery 70A(2): 227-232

Hurley MV. 1997 The effects of damage on muscle function, proprioception and rehabilitation. Manual Therapy 2(1) 11 - 17

Inman VT, Saunders JB & Abbot LC. 1944 Observations on the function of the shoulder joint. Journal Bone Joint Surgery 26: 1-30

Irrgang J J, Whitney S L, Harner C D 1992 Classification and treatment of shoulder dysfunction in the overhead athlete. J Sport Rehabilitation 1(197-222)

Itio E, Newman S R, Kuechle D K, Morrey B F, An K N 1993 Dynamic anterior stabilisers of the shoulder with arm in abduction. J Bone & Joint Surgery 76B 834(834-836)

Jobe F W, Bradlex J P 1989 The diagnosis and nonoperative treatment of shoulder injuries in athletes. Clin Sports Med 8:419-438

Jobe F W, Kvitne R S, Giangarra C E 1989 Shoulder pain in the overhead or throwing athlete: the relationship of anterior instability and rotator cuff impingement. Orthopaedic Review 18:963-975

Jobe F W, Pink M 1993 Classification and treatment of shoulder dysfunction in the overhead athlete. J Orthopeadic Sports Physiotherapy 18(2): 427-432

Jobe F W, Pink M 1994 The athlete's shoulder. Journal of Hand Therapy April – June:107-110

Jobe FW & Pink M. 1993 Classification and treatment of shoulder dysfunction in the overhead athlete. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physiotherapy 18(2): 427 - 232

Johansson H, Sjolander P & Sojka P. 1991 Receptors in the knee joint ligaments and their role in the biomechanics of the joint. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 18(5): 341 - 368

Johnson G, Bogduk N, Nowitzke A & House D. 1994 Anatomy and actions of trapezius muscle. Clinical biomechanics 9: 44-50

Jull G 1997 Management of cervical headache. Manual Therapy 2(4): 182-190

Kahle W, Leonhardt H, and Platzer W 1992 Color Atlas/Text of Human Anatomy Vol 1 Locomotor System, 4th.Thieme,

Kamkar A, Irrang JJ & Whitney SL. 1993 Nonoperative management of secondary shoulder impingement syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physiotherapy 17(5): 212 – 224

Kapandji I A 1974 The Physiology of Joints vol 3, The Trunk and Vertebral Column, Churchill Livingstone,

Kapandji I A 1982 The Physiology of Joints vol I, Upper Limb, Churchill Livingstone,

Kebaetse M, McClure P, Pratt N A 1999 Thoracic position effect on shoulder range of motion, strength, and three-dimensional scapular kinematics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 80: 945 - 950

Kelley M J 1995 Anatomic and biomechanical rationale for rehabilitation of the athlete's shoulder. J of Sports Rehabilitation 4:122-154

Kendall FP, McCreary EK & Provance PG. 1993 Muscles Testing & Function. 3rd edn. Williams & Wilkins USA ch10 p343

Kibler W B 1991 Role of the scapula in overhead throwing motion. Contemporary Orthopaedics 22(5): 525-532

Kibler W B 1995 Biomechanical analysis of the shoulder during tennis activities. Clin Sports Med 14:79-85

Kibler W B 1998 The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function. Am J Sports Med 26(2): 325-337

Kibler W B 1999 Shoulder rehabilitation:principles and practice. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 30(4): S40-50

King L J, Healy J C 1999 Imaging of the painful shoulder. Manual Therapy 4(1): 11-18

Klapper R C, Jobe F W, Matsuura P 1992 The subscapularis muscle and its glenohumeral ligament-like bands - a histomorphological study. Am J Sports Med 20(3): 307-310

Kugler A, kruger-Franke M, Reininger S, Trouillier H-H, Rosemeyer B 1996 Muscular imbalance and shoulder pain in volleyball attackers. British J Sports Med 30:256-259

Leahy P M, Mock L E 1991 Altered biomechanics of the shoulder and the subscapularis. Chiropractic Sports Medicine 5(3): 62-66

Lee DG. 1996 Rotational instability of the mid-thoracic spine: assessment and management. Manual Therapy 1(5): 234 – 241

Lephart SM & Henry TJ. 1995 Functional rehabilitation for the upper and lower extremity. Orthopaedic clinics North America 26:3 579 – 593

Lippitt S, Matsen F 1993 Mechanisms of glenohumeral joint stability. Clin Orthop & Related Research 291:20-28

Lucas D. 1973 Biomechanics of the shoulder joint. Archives of Surgery 107: 425 – 432

Ludewig P and Cook T M. Alterations in shoulder kinematics and associated muscle activity in people with symptoms of shoulder impingement. Physical Therapy 80:3 276-291. 2000.

Lukasiewicz A C, McClure P, Michener L, Pratt N A, Sennett B 1999

Comparison of 3-dimensional scapular position and orientation between subjects with and without shoulder impingement. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy 29(10): 574-589

Magarey M E, Jones M A, Grant E R 1996 Biomedical considerations and clinical patterns related to disorders of the glenoid labrum in the predominately stable glenohumeral joint. Manual Therapy 1(5): 242-249

Magary M & Jones M. 1992 Clinical diagnosis and management of minor shoulder instabilities. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 38: 269 – 280

McConnell J 1996 Management of patellofemoral problems. Manual Therapy 1(2):60 – 66

Michiels I & Grevenstein J. 1995 Kinematics of shoulder abduction in the scapula plane. Clinical Biomechanics 10(3): 137-143

Morrissey D. The kinetic medial rotation test of the shoulder: a biomechanical analysis. 1998. UCL London. Thesis/Dissertation MSc

Moseley JB, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J & Tibone J. 1992 EMG analysis of the scapula muscles during a shoulder rehabilitation program. American Journal of Sports Medicine 20(2): 128 -134

Mottram S. 1997 Dynamic stability of the scapula. Manual Therapy 2 : 3 123 – 13

Norkin C C and Levangie P K 1992 Joint Structure and Function: a comprehensive analysis,2nd.F A Davies,

Norkin CC, & Lavangie PK. 1992 Joint Structure and Function : a comphrehensive analysis. 2nd edition. FA Davies. USA

O'Brien S J, Neves M C, Arnoczky S P, Rozbruck S R, Dicarlo E F, Warren R F, Schwartz R, Wickiewicz T L 1990 The anatomy and histology of the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex of the shoulder. Am J Sports Med 18(6): 449-456

Olsom T R 1996 A.D.A.M. Student Atlas of Anatomy,1st. Ed Williams & Wilkins,

Paine R M, Voight M 1993 The role of the scapula. J Orthopeadic Sports Physiotherapy 18(1): 386-391

Palastanga N, Field D & Soames R. 1994 Anatomy and Human Movement - Structure and Function. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford ch4 p94

Panjabi MM. 1992 The stabilizing system of the spine. Part I. Function, dysfunction adaptation and enhancement. Journal of Spinal Disorders 5(4): 383 - 389

Panjabi MM. 1992 The stabilizing system of the spine. Part II. Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. Journal of Spinal Disorders 5 : 390 – 397

Payne L Z, Deng X, Craig E, Torzilli P A, Warren R F 1997 The combined dynamic and static contributions to subacromial impingement. Am J Sports Med 25(6): 801-808

Peat M 1977 The shoulder complex: a review of some aspects of functional anatomy. Physiotherapy Canada 29(5): 241-246

Peat M 1986 Functional anatomy of the shoulder joint. Physical Therapy 66(12): 1855-1865

Pink M, Perry J, Browne A, Scovazzo M, Kerrigan J 1991 The normal shoulder during freestyle swimming. An electromyographic and cinematographic analysis of twelve muscles. Am J Sports Med 19(6): 569-576

Poppen N & Walker P. 1976 Normal and abnormal motion of the shoulder. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (Am) 58: 195 - 201

Richardson CA & Jull GA. 1995 Muscle control - pain control. What exercises would you prescribe? Manual Therapy 1(1): 1-9

Rodosky M W, Harner C D, Fu F H 1994 The role of the long head of biceps muscle and superior glenoid labrum in anterior stability of the shoulder. Am J Sports Med 22(1): 121-430

Saha A K 1971 Dynamic stability of the glenohumeral joint. Acta Orthop Scan 42: 1-495

Sahrmann S A 2000 Diagnosis & Treatment of Management Impairment Syndromes,Ist.Ed Mosby USA (in Press)

Sahrmann S A 2000 Diagnosis & treatment of movement impairment syndromes. Course publication London.

Schenk T J, Brems J J 1998 Multidirectional instability of the shoulder: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Am Acad Orthop Surg 6:65-72

Schmitt L, Snyder-Mackler L 1999 Role of scapular stabilizers in etiology and treatment of impingement syndrome. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy 29(1): 31-38

Sharkey N A, Marder R A 1995 The rotator cuff opposes superior translation of the humeral head. Am J Sports Med 23(3): 270-275

Smith R L, Brunolli J 1989 Shoulder kinesthesia after anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation. Physical Therapy 69(2): 106-112

Sobush D C, Simoneau G G, Dietz K E, Levene J A, Grossman R E, Smith W B 1996 The Lennie test for measuring scapula position in healthy young adult females: a reliability and validity study. J Orthopeadic Sports Physiotherapy 39-50

Soslowsky L J, Carpenter J E, Bucchieri J S, Flatow E L 1997 Biomechanics of the rotator cuff. Orthop Clin North Am 28(1): 17-30

Ticker J B, Fealy S, Fu F H 1995 Instability and impingement in the athlete's shoulder. Sports Medicine 19(6): 418-426

Travell JG & Simons DG. 1983 Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction. The Trigger Point Manual - The Upper Extremities. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Turkel S J, Panio M W, Marshall J L, Girgis F G 1999 Stabilising mechanisms preventing anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint. J Bone & Joint Surgery 63A(3): 1208-1217

Valentin A, Winge S, Engstrom B 1998 Early arthroscopic treatment of primary traumatic anterior shoulder disclocation. A follow up study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 8:405-410

van der Helm F C T 1994 Analysis of the kinematic and dynamic behaviour of the shoulder mechanism. J Biomechanics 27(5): 527-550

Voight M, Hardin J, Blackburn T A, Tippett S, Canner G C 1996 The effect of muscle fatigue on and the relationship of arm dominance to shoulder proprioception. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy 23(6): 348-352

Wadsworth D J, Bullock-Saxton J E 1997 Recruitment patterns of the scapular rotator muscles in freestyle swimmers with subacromial impingement. Int J Sports Med 18(8): 618-624

Warner J J 1998 Serratus anterior dysfunction recognition and treatment. Clin Orthop 349-139-148

Warner J J, Caborn D N 1992 Overview of shoulder instability. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 4(3.4): 145-198

Warner J J, Micheli L J, Arslanian L E, Kennedy J, Kennedy R 1990

Patterns of flexibility, laxity, and strength in normal shoulders and shoulders with instability and impingement. Am J Sports Med 18(4): 366-375

Warner J J, Micheli L J, Arslanian L E, Kennedy J, Kennedy R 1992 Scapulothoracic motion in normal shoulders and shoulders with glenohumeral instability and impingement syndrome. A study using Moire topographic analysis. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 285(12): 191-199

Watson L 1997 Conservative treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome by scapula strengthening techniques 215

White S & Whitten C., 1993, Long thoracic nerve palsy in a professional ballet dancer. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(4): 626 – 628

White SG & Sahrmann S. A movement system balance approach to management of musculoskeletal pain. In Physical therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

Wilk K E 1993 Current concepts in rehabilitation of the athletic shoulder. J Orthopeadic Sports Physiotherapy 18(1): 365-378

Wilk K E, Andrews J R, Arrigo C A 1997 The physical examination of the glenohumeral joint:emphasis on the stabilizing structures. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy 25(6): 380-389

Wilk K E, Arrigo C A, Andrews J R 1997 Current concepts: the stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint. J Orthopeadic Sports Physical Therapy 25(6): 364-379

Wilk KE & Arrigo C. 1993 Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the athletic shoulder. Journal of Orthopeadic and Sports Physiotherapy 18(10) : 365 - 378

Williams JM, Jull GA & Ng J. 1996 An invivo study of the primary and coupled rotations of the thoracic spine. Clinical Biomechanics 11 (6) 311 – 316

Referências MS IS

Bennett W, Doherty N, Hallisey M, Fulkerson 1993 Insertion orientation of terminal vastus lateralis obliquus and vastus medialis obliquus muscle fibres in human knees. Clinical Anatomy 6:129 - 134

Bogduk N, Pearcy, Hadfield G 1992 Anatomy and biomechanics of psoas major. Clinical Biomechanics 7: 109-119

Bowden P 1998 Personal communication re distraction facilitation of psoas.

Blauth M & Tilman B 1983 Stressing on the human femoro-patellar joint. Anatomy and Embryology 168 117 - 123)

Comerford MJ 1985 Patello femoral pain a new approach. Proceedings A.P.A. National Conference. Brisbane.

Comerford MJ 1986 Thesis: The development of dynamic radiographic measurements of patellar tracking and the documentation of normative values for asymptomatic males." Physiotherapy Thesis Library University of Queensland.

Comerford MJ 1987 Dynamic radiographic measurement of patellar lateral deviation and its relationship to `q' angle. Proceedings of W.C.P.T. post congress course: The Management of Sporting Injuries Directions from Research. Sydney.

Comerford MJ 1987 Patellar malalignment reduction of the dynamic imbalance. Proceedings of W.C.P.T. post congress course: The Management of Sporting Injuries Directions from Research. Sydney.

Cross M, Crichton K 1987 Clinical examination of the injured knee. Gower

Dananberg HJ 1997 Lower back pain as a gait-related repetitive motion injury In: Movement, Stability & Low Back Pain - The essential role of the pelvis Chapter 21 Edited by: Vleeming, Mooney, Dorman, Snijders, Stoeckart Churchill Livingstone

Dahhan P, Delphine G, Larde D 1981 The femoropatellar joint. Anatomica Clinica 3:23-29

Donatelli R 1987 Abnormal biomechanics of the foot and ankle. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 9 (1): 11-16

Donatelli RA 1996 The biomechanics of the foot and ankle. 2nd edition. FA Davis

Elvey RL 1995 Peripheral neuropathic disorders and neuromusculoskeletal pain. In Shacklock M (ed.) Moving in on pain. Butterworth Heinemann.

Fulkerson J, Hungerford d 1990 In: Disorders of the patellofemoral joint. 2nd edition. Williams and Wilkins

Fulkerson j, Gossling H 1980 Anatomy of the knee joint retinaculum. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 153: 183

Gilmore OJA 1990 Gilmore’s groin – ten years experience of groin disruption. Sports medicine and soft tissue trauma 3:3

Gilmore OJA 1993 Gilmore’s groin. Physiotherapy in Sport Vol. XVIII(1): 14 - 15

Goodfellow J, Hungerford D, Zindel M 1976 Patello-femoral joint mechanics and pathology. Part I Functional Anatomy of the patello-femoral Joint. Journal of bone & Joint Surgery 58B(3): 287 -290

Goodfellow J, Hungerford D, Woods C 1976 Patello-femoral joint mechanics and pathology. Part II Chondromalacia patellae. Journal of bone & Joint Surgery 58B(3): 291 – 299

Herrington L, Payton C 1997 The effects of corrective taping of patella on patients with patellofemoral pain. Physiotherapy 83(12): 566 – 572

Hunter G 1998 Specific soft tissue mobilisation in the management of soft tissue dysfunction. Manual Therapy 3(1): 2-11

Lang LMG, Volpe RG, Wernick J 1997 Static biomechanical evaluation of the foot and lower limb: the podiatrist’s perspective. Manual therapy 2(2): 58-66

Larsen B, Andreasen E, Urfer A, Mickelson M & Newhouse K 1995 Patella Taping: a radiographic examination of the medial glide technique. American Journal Sports Medicine 23(4): 465 – 470

Lieb F, Perry J 1968 Quadriceps Function – an anatomical and mechanical study using amputated limbs. Journal of bone & Joint Surgery 50A(8): 1535 –1548

Magee DJ 1992 Orthopedic physical assessment. 2nd edition. WB Saunders

Malone TR, McPoil T, Nitz AJ (Eds.) 1997 Orthopedic and sports physical therapy. 3rd edition. Mosby

McConnell J 1996 Management of patellofemoral problems. Manual Therapy 1:60-66

Morrish GM, Woledge RC 1997 A comparison of the activation of muscles moving the patella in normal subjects and in patients with chronic patellofemoral problems. Scand J rehab Med 29: 43 – 48

Mulligan B 1996 Mobilization with Movement (MWMS) for the hip joint to restore internal rotation and flexion. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 4(1): 35 – 36

Novacheck TF 1998 The biomechanics of running. Gait and Posture 7: 77-95

Perry J 1992 Gait analysis – normal and pathological function. Slack

Prior T 1994 The biomechanical evaluation of the foot. Physiotherapy in Sport XIX(4): 6 –14 Reider B, Marshall J, Koslin B, Ring B, Girgis F 1981 The anterior aspect of the knee. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 63A(3): 351-356

Sahrmann S, Caldwell C, Fleming D, Hall C, McDonnell M, Woolsey N 1998 Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes. Seminar. London

Self J, Gillard D & Marshall S 1996 Patellofemoral pain: Is the A-angle a clinically useful measurement? Physiotherapy 82(5): 324 –625

Smith K 1997 Recurrent Patellofemoral Subluxation. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 5(2): 63 - 79

Trickey E 1976 Ligamentous injuries around the knee. British Medical Journal 12: 1492 - 1494

Winkel D, Omer M, Phelps V (Eds.) 1997 Diagnosis and treatment of the lower extremities. Aspen
Home - Artigos - Organização - Cursos - Links - Inscrição - Contato - Clínica

2017 Fisioterapia Marlene Müller. Todos os direitos reservados.
Desenvolvido por ART.COM PROPAGANDA.
Caso você utilize o navegador Internet Explorer 6, atualize-o para uma versão mais recente.